Henry Chapman is a director of the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron and the University of Hamburg in Germany. He carried out his PhD in X-ray optics at The University of Melbourne, Australia, work for which he was awarded the Bragg Gold Medal from the Australian Institute of Physics. Henry develops methods in coherent X-ray imaging, which began at Stony Brook University in New York. Later, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, he demonstrated the use of X-ray free-electron lasers to out-run radiation damage, solving a serious limitation in X-ray structure determination by increasing the tolerable dose for high-resolution biological imaging and crystallography by many thousands of times. He is one of the inventors of serial femtosecond crystallography, which promises to overcome current bottlenecks in protein structure determination. His current research is focused on developing this method and extending it to the smallest possible crystals: that is, single molecules. In this effort he developed a new method to obtain electron density images of macromolecules directly from the continuous diffraction of disordered crystals.